Saturday, March 15, 2014

Chapter Eleven Indianapolis, Pro-Bike Mayor and Greenway Heaven

Lucky for us, getting to and through Indianapolis, which at over 790,000 people is this country’s 12th largest city, would be a lot easier than my first time through in 1979 thanks to  Ray Irvin, aka, Mr. Greenway and Mayor Greg Ballard. 
Thirty years ago, Indy, as it is referred to by locals, offered nothing more than high speed roads on which shoulders were absent. In fact, the days of questions and map study that had led up it on my first ride across America, told me that the only way to get to the other side of Indianapolis, and the vast metropolitan area that it sat in the center of, was to go around it. In all, the detour that had resulted required an extra one hundred or so miles of travel.
Since 1990, however, much has changed. It was then that Indianapolis began its Greenway push with Ray Irvin. Once an Indianapolis councilman, and then the longtime Director of Indy Greenways, it wasn’t until 2008 when Irvin moved up to the state level in former Governor Mitch Daniels administration as the Director of Greenways and Bike Ways that Indianapolis knew what it had lost. In his easy, folksy way, Ray had kept everyone so busy, that most were blinded by the Greenway tidal wave he had them swept up in.
Through Indy Greenways (IG), the infrastructure Ray built for people power through several different Mayoral administrations, caused a whole new Indianapolis to emerge. So much so, that it is now a nationally respected leader in the Greenway universe.
Under Ray’s watch, with also the help of Indiana University, he had been able to document the rise in property values of those homes located in close proximity to IG's growing network of trails. This as the numbers of its users, even today, has not stopped growing. Many informal communities have also emerged in Indianapolis as people get out on to the IG pathways where they are no longer separated from one another by glass, plastic or metal.
Once a dying Rust Belt City, because of the still virile Indy Greenways that Ray has left behind, Indy has also witnessed a new vitality. It has become desirable to the class of people most American post industrial cities are just now realizing they need to attract in order to keep their economies growing. Called the Creative Class by noted author and economist, Richard Florida, this is the new generation of college graduates who work in high-tech businesses and knowledge intensive industries such as biotech, information technology and telecommunications. 
Such workers are drawn to those cities where thinking is not walled in by the noise of freeways or traffic choked streets. In the same way large computer employers attract the best talent by turning their places of employment into college campus like settings with walking paths, fountains and lawns, Indy Greenways has been working hard to turn Indianapolis into one giant university grounds.
Indianapolis knew back in the ‘80’s, that in a part of the country where there was no ocean to hear or mountains to wonder at, that to attract the new blood of a virile work force, that its main attraction needed to be its beautiful green spaces. Toward this end, then, it had to get them interconnected as well as more accessible. The many miles of trails that resulted now reach 56 parks, 24 schools, a zoo, a stadium, museums and three arts and cultural districts. 
Because IG also manages the bus lines and has a hand in bike travel in Indianapolis, its trail network is also inter-modal. In such a way, large employers, hospitals, libraries and most all-important destinations are all built into this exciting interconnected labyrinth. All of Indy’s buses and its 300 miles of signed on street bike routes interconnect with IG’s paved pathways making for a transportation system that functions quietly and efficiently in the background of a huge city at work. 
The low cost travel network it has built enables its minimum wage earners to safely and efficiently get to their jobs at its restaurants, hotels, laundries, movie and sports complexes, and all those businesses that just make a city run as well as fun. While far from a perfect bike route system, many are still usually able to get to and from their work without getting caught up in the traffic on the streets.
By making it easy and affordable for its service industry workers to get around, Indy also knew that since a lot of these low paying positions are entry level jobs, that these people would keep using Greenways as they moved up in their positions. And already this is starting to pay off for Indy as these people graduate into their careers or move on to more responsible employment and even start to raise families.
Nor did any of this urban renewal require that Indianapolis decimate blighted neighborhoods or undertake any massive reconstruction projects. No, not at all. In fact the bulk of the recreation and transportation corridors that it built for its population came from the same stock of land many American cities already have at their disposal. Indianapolis created a lot of its linear parks by laying a small ribbon of asphalt on its once unused flood plains and abandoned rail corridors. 
And it is here that Ray sees a way for other cities to build Greenways that can pay for themselves. He feels that underground utilities can be laid under them and that cities can charge a subterranean lease for this privilege. As such, digging up city streets every time a new gas, phone, sewer or cable line needs to be serviced would become a thing of the past
In making it desirable for people to get out of their cars in Indianapolis, so that he could begin building a Greenway consciousness, Ray had to fight against tradition. Founded as the state capital in 1821, Indy’s geographic presence in the center of the state has always made it a cross roads for travelers headed north to Chicago, south to Louisville, east to Cincinnati, or west to St. Louis.  With the help of the Madison & Indianapolis Railroad, Indy’s population swelled from 8,000 in 1850 to more than 169,000 in 1900. By the time car travel pushed this number to 314,194 people in 1920, it rivaled Detroit for America’s top Motor City honors. In fact, the Duisenberg, Marmon, National, and Stutz all had their car factory headquarters there. 
Indianapolis car culture became officially ingrained in the local consciousness in 1909 when 3.2 million bricks were used to build the world famous Indianapolis Motor Speedway. As we show you in the appendix when we discuss the Lincoln Highway, the racetrack was just one of former bike shop owner, Carl Fisher’s, many creations. The coast-to-coast road that he envisioned became a reality because he was able to call upon Indianapolis business leaders to build a nation wide momentum for his dream. Every year when its speedsters are in town and a great preponderance of city resources are dedicated to the racetrack, Indy keeps its place in the national consciousness as a city that takes its leadership from cars. 
This despite the fact that in the 80’s Mayor William Hudnut set the city on a different track when he began the work of establishing Indianapolis as the Amateur Sports Capital of America. Aided by nearly 60 million dollars from the patriarch of the Lilly Endowment, Eli Lily himself, there were many projects that issued from Hudnut’s mandate. Besides the new tennis and swimming centers, track and field stadiums and the football coliseum that resulted, the world class Major Taylor velodrome also got built.
However in going from a dying car city once known as ‘Nap-town’ and ‘India-no-place’, the one project that most benefitted from the new image that Indianapolis firmly established for itself at the local level, was Indy Greenways. It is this organization that Ray drove for many years that continues to make it not only safe but also desirable to not be in a car in Indianapolis. So much so that communities from all over the country come to Indy Greenways for guidance on how to improve the quality of life in their cities - with Greenways!! 
Nor is any of this awareness lost in Mayor Gregory Ballard’s Mayoral administration. In Indianapolis, Mayor Gregory Ballard was happily at the Depot, the replica of an Indiana train station that serves as Indy Greenway headquarters, to receive us.  
A 64th Street trailhead, it is on the Monon Trail, a 10-mile work of Greenway art that Ray deserves to be proud of. The Monon was the first piece in the growing 165-mile Indianapolis greenway network, a network that has a 326-mile master plan. An abandoned rail track and once a blighted wasteland eyesore, overgrown with weeds, refuse and the occasional rusting automobile, the Monon has inspired a new renaissance in how the local Hoosiers relate to their lands. 
Connecting a dozen residential neighborhoods with schools, parks, commercial districts and even the state fairgrounds, it is one of the busiest Car-Free pathways in the nation. Along the Monon, property values continue to far outpace those in the rest of the city as people find the adjacent housing to be some of the most desirable anywhere in Indianapolis. As the genuine community builder that it is, the countless informal neighborhood groups that use the Monon as an anchor, have made convivial exercise one of Indy’s predominant mantras.
While Ray has done a ton of work creating off-road infrastructure for his city, Mayor Ballard has moved mountains for those who ride his roads. In 2008, just as Ray was moving away from Indy Greenways, Ballard pushed the plan that developed the 200+ miles of bike lanes we were now able to enjoy. He also led the charge that resulted in a Mayor’s Bicycle Advisory Council and his city hired its first Bike/Ped coordinator. 
Under Ballard’s reign, the  Indianapolis Cultural Trail that Ray long had as a work in progress, quickly steamrolled into place. It connects cyclists with many areas of downtown Indianapolis. In seeing that their needs now had an ally in high office, IndyCOG, the local bicycle advocacy group, among other actions, created a cutting edge  bicycle map for the city.
In taking its lead from Ballard, the private sector is also teaming up with the city in joining the bicycle explosion that is taking place in Indy. The Indy Bike Hub YMCA, for example, was completed in the Fall of 2011. It houses secure bicycle parking for 148 bikes, a fitness center, lockers/showers, a bike shop, bicycle advocacy organization offices and the city's bicycle patrol unit. 
The group of men and women we rolled up to, were all dressed in suits and other office wear. In addition to Mayor Ballard and his staff, there were others there that were known as local Greenway shakers and movers. Familiar faces, I had worked with many of them over the years. Joseph Wynns, the director of Indianapolis Recreation, of which Indy Greenways is a part, was there. As was Ron Carter the Indy Greenways director who replaced Ray when he moved on to the state level. Even John Glick, the man who talked with me about his fixed gear bicycle rides to work as far back as 2002, was there also on behalf of the recreation department.
The others we had no way of knowing, moved their Greenway mountains behind the scenes. There were officials from firms who had done construction work on Indy Greenway trails as well as from Indiana State University. The college continues to supply Indy Greenways with the mountains of data they use to procure added funding for their trail building efforts. In a city driven by the needs of its Greenway, members of the Indianapolis Greenways Development Committee, a 15-person volunteer board of directors assigned to their positions by the Mayor, Council and the Recreation Board, were there. A representative from the Greenways Foundation, the charitable trust which finances the Indy Greenways operation gave added authority to our reception.
Ron Carter was all smiles as we rolled up to the group that had assembled.
“Martin,” Ron called. “You made it!”
Instantly though we’d never met in person, I know who he was from all the talking we had done on the phone as he and I organized this event. 
“Wow Ron,” I said as I worked my way off the bike to the amazement of most everyone present. 
“So that’s how you do it. I was wondering how you were going to get off that thing,” Ron said.
“Getting off is a skill just like getting on,” I replied. “And it looks like you’ve got a few Greenway friends!” I was happily impressed
“Well I figured you were worth it,” he joked. Pointing he continued, “Now why don’t you bring you and your team over here so we can get everyone introduced to our Mayor.
The 48th Mayor of Indianapolis, Gregory Ballard and I both graduated from Catholic high schools and then college at about the same time. However while I was busy recovering from a head injury and just trying to get to the starting line of a life where I could be productive, Ballard saw the world during his 23-year career in the Marines. A tall and strong looking man, the force of his character was apparent when he looked me in the eyes and said, “So Ron tells me you want to do what we’ve done here with our Greenways all across the US. From San Francisco to Washington, DC,” as he shook my hand.
“You’ve got it Mayor Ballard. That’s why we’re visiting you on this ride.” 
As the two of us exchanged pleasantries, the media pressed closer with their cameras and notepads. 
"So are you going to DC to call attention to some kind of Carl Fisher bike path you want to build from here to San Francisco?" a voice wanted to know.
"Whoaa, what newspaper are you with?" I asked.
"The Indianapolis Herald," his reply was matter of fact.
"I should make your talk to your book review editor then," I teased. "She asked me the same question when she was getting a story together about tonight's booksigning."  
Seeing that he was too busy taking notes to react, I was happy that he had given me this opening, "So like I told her, and I am sorry I can't remember her name, it is not a bike path but a coast to coast network of bikeable roads and paths that will connect cyclists to cities and the important destinations within those cities. And in time some of that will give way to a dedicated arterial for bikes but we gotta make it so cars and bikes can safely coexist in as many places as we can."
"In terms of strategy, we have determined that the best way to build this consciousness is to follow the same precedent that Carl Fisher’s Lincoln Highway set all the way back in 1913. As America's first coast-to-coast highway, it started out as a red line on the map. In his boldness, your native son prescribed a route from Washington DC to San Francisco back when most of the roads west of the Mississippi were no more than ruts in the weeds.
"And as they struggled to get it built, other roads and highways sprang up all over the nation. In time, the Lincoln disappeared into the numbered US highway system, much of which was then usurped by the I-80 that we know today. The example they set, however, is how I foresee us going forward. We're asking for a coast to bicycle highway at a time when dedicated bikeways are far and few between. And just as the people of the early 1900's thought that roads that extended beyond the city were only for the rich hobbyists of the day, we will be showing how we can rebuild America by connecting cyclists to its cities and all the important place within them.
"So just like Carl Fisher and Henry Joy did with their Lincoln Highway, that I show in the appendix of my book, we are going to keep promoting the San Francisco to Washington DC Mayors' Ride route. Heck after Fisher formalized his route with his 1913 cross-country trip, after World War I, they even got the US Army to take a convoy across the US on it as a kind of a victory march. 
“Instead of sending 72 vehicles, most of them heavy military trucks, across America to rally a sense of patriotism like they did, we will keep sending every day bike riders and not racer celebrities, to meet Mayors. All of this will get people more and more excited about reconnecting to their health, one another and to themselves with the Greenway we foresee."
Seeing that they were busy taking notes, I announced, “OK, so let’s get everyone together for a group photo. I know most of you are hammered for time so let’s get rocking with this.” Pointing I continued, “I say we all stand here”.
I walked up to Mayor Gregory and joked, “Mayor Greg we’re gonna make you the star today. Is that OK?”
He smiled back at me as I pressed on with my choreography, “Can we get all of you standing here to move closer to the front?”
I kept nudging and coddling until I had everyone in place. Soon, one of the Mayor’s staffers was snapping pictures. By the time Indianapolis NBG Day was complete, there were probably twenty of us celebrating the proclamation Mayor Ballard had prepared for us. 
The rest of the day, as Ron and I compared notes and took a closer look at some of his pathway projects, I began to realize something about what I was experiencing. If other cities put more of their people to work studying and building Greenways as well as using them and enjoying the enhanced quality of life they bring as they also grow richer at the bank, that they would all try to be like one another. That was how a coast-to-coast Greenway network was going to become real.
I knew I had work to do. I had to get the Indy Greenway story out there. Already I was starting to get ready for our next stop, Cincinnati. 

Thursday, August 29, 2013

How Folsom, CA Recreation Manager Sees the NBG

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Handsome and fit, with a large view of the future, Lynn also saw the big picture of the National Bicycle Greenway. As an enthusiastic supporter of our mission and our yearly trek up the American River Parkway, he saw the NBG in its highest art form; what will happen once we get all of America’s bikeable roads and paths interconnected.

He and I had spent many hours talking about the NBG over the years. Lynn envisions a corridor similar to his Parkway that celebrates the natural, as well as the urban wonder of each of the areas though which it passes to connect the coasts. From his Parkway, he foresees rail trails joining hands with old logging roads and abandoned highways and the like to explore America’s forests, mountains, lakes, and even deserts as it moves across the West. 

In his mind’s eye, he saw, as the Lincoln Highway people did back in 1912 (see appendix), the reality of a red line on the map calling for a travel route from ocean to ocean. While the dream they fulfilled was for cars, Lynn knows the right of way from San Jose to Washington, DC, our annual Mayors' Rides are helping us determine, will one day make quiet, vehicle-free, cross-county bike trips possible. This as we extol all the natural and man made simplicity and wonder that meet our path. 

Interpretive in nature, the historical background of mountain passes such as the Mormon Immigrant Pass (discussed in detail later in this chapter) ahead, as well as those found in Nevada, the Wastach, the Rockies, and the Appalachians, will all be marked with tasteful signage that will make them fun to experience for those moving slow. The wonder of America’s bread basket will be explained. Even the Platte River Basin’s contribution to taming the West (talked about in the Omaha chapter), instead of being thundered through at interstate speeds, will be greatly savored by all those who use their own bodies to see the USA. The natural features we want to celebrate on the route we envision are endless

Where the NBG passes through all the urban areas in between wide open America, there will be wonder at hand there as well. Once again, signage and information kiosks will be hard at work along the many bike boulevards, we call, Neighborhood Greenways, that we foresee in cities small and large all along our route across America. They will tell NBG bikeway users where to go for food, lodging, fun and points of interest along the way. 

This as the route we will have chosen to most directly get across each of the population centers in question will establish the character  that sets them apart from one another. In order to do so, the National Bicycle Greenway will work to make sure our route will take in as much of the best each city has to offer as we can. This in the way of attractions, parks,  neighborhoods, traffic tamed shopping villages, places of learning, and whatever natural assets there are to be discovered, etc.

<snip>

Wednesday, August 28, 2013

Our Vision of Two-Wheel Unity


Imagine being on one of  the many tree shaded parts of a  path that cycle tourists, bike commuters, those out for a family ride, and people of all ages, abilities and nationalities can come together on to  have their biking needs met. On the Greenway network we envision, hear laughter, the faint sound of gears clicking and birds chirping merrily away. And as you let your mind wander, feel the wind blowing on your face as you whisk away on a system of safely bikeable roads and paths that showcase the best of all those areas that give purpose to your wheels.


In the urban parts of this network, marvel at the quiet that soothes you as cities busy about not far beyond.  In the neighborhood parks you pass through  let the smell of fresh cut grass innervate your mind's eye you with all the ways people can use bikes to make a playground of this world. Once beyond the centers of population, allow  the   newly plowed earth in the farm fields that lie not far beyond, inspire  you with the sense of renewal that good biking infrastructure can bring to the quality of our lives.

And know that if you dare to adventure, the sunsets you can expect to see in the plains and in the deserts along your way will fill a sky so huge you will feel released from the world of limits. And as you are, your troubles will all fade into the nothingness from which they came. This as you celebrate the out of the box thinking that is helping  make the  biggest  of your cycling  dreams come true.

On our Greenway, besides being encouraged   to explore your imagination as you renew your connection with the planet, your brothers and with your body, your basic travel needs will also be met. Water and bathroom breaks will all be interspersed at intervals your legs can easily manage as will food, lodging, rest, supply and bike repair  areas. The regular incidence of mileage markers, info kiosks and interpretive signs describing the history or notable features of the various locales through which you pass, will give you the feedback you need to always know where you are at.


While all of the foregoing may sound too good to be true, for the last half century, we have regularly experienced the effects of the car's highest art form of utopia, the interstate freeway system. In numbers that are staggering, our  love affair with the automobile has divided neighborhoods, shattered lives,  slaughtered countless people and small animals, blighted cities, suffocated once fertile land and left in its wake a litany of environmental pejoratives so numerous they could fill books.

The cost to our mental well being has also been incalculable. As metal boxes plod along on America's freeways as a duty bound procession of lifelessness, the distance between all those encapsulated inside of them  continues to grow. Unwittingly, car drivers long have found themselves  pitted against against one another and the planet itself in what has been a daily exercise in survival, On this Nation's motor ways, as a result  of the way they were designed, the motorists on them can't help but implode the  sense of separation that they feel from the earth beneath their car seats and from their fellow man. It is this battlefield they  must leave behind when their cars deliver them to places where they shop, recreate, work or learn. Is it no small wonder that even well beyond the road, random acts of violence and other forms of indifference are so common place in America today?

In getting to this sad state of affairs, it was the motor industry's plan that backfired on them. In the '40's and '50's, their leaders  teamed with corporations and their lobbyists to get our country's resources, best human talent and billions of dollars committed to making their dream of a fast moving car utopia real. In the glorified name of "progress", 'if you build it, they will come' became the new mantra for the interstate freeways that much of the nation blindly rallied around.

And as we built what were supposed to be time saving  speedways  and all the infrastructure (expressways, boulevards, strip malls, transit hubs, parking lots, etc) that both support and connect to them  they gave birth to the sprawl (subdivisions and all of their underpinning) that makes the car necessary for all too many people. However, because many of us must travel further and further to and from the city core, our population centers are choking with the motor vehicle explosion the interstates that used to live at the outskirts have caused. And as freeways  grind more and more of  America to rush hour gridlock, we have sadly begun to accept the fact  that you cannot build your way out of all the congestion that has now resulted.

While few would disagree that it is the rampant use of the automobile that is now bringing about great damage to our well being as well as to that of the planet, few think the bicycle can reverse the downward spiral we are hurtling down. This is so because there is a core resistance in many parts of America preventing the bicycle from being seen as the serious problem solver that is needed here. Too many people still think of the driver's license as a right of passage into adulthood and the pedal machine as a toy that we must outgrow.


And yet this attitude is beginning to change. As the effects of climate change continue to doom our world with catastrophe, a green approach to living is becoming the accepted norm. More and more people are beginning to yearn for a way to keep up without the  automobile being at the center of their lives. While this is an every day reality in congested urban centers like New York City, where people thrive and flourish without their cars, this model needs to be replicated in cities, big and small, all across the country.

Once a critical mass of Americans then finally realize that the bicycle is the most practical as well as efficient user of human energy, then it's value as a tool that  can truly help rebuild America and the rest of the  world will be felt by our leaders. It will be this awareness that will declare war against all the atrocities we have committed against Mother Earth as it mobilizes our collective thinking for a completely different approach to life.

Just as General Motors bought out Congress with greenback dollars 70 years ago, here now in the 21st Century,  our elected officials will feel the strength of our will at the ballot box. They will help bring about the all new green economy a bike centric lifestyle will usher into form.

To keep our allegiance, our leaders will get in front of the ground swell of momentum that is forming  by overhauling the regulations governing  driver  education. By helping gain acceptance for cyclists on the road with with universal passage of the safe passing law, for example, where cars must give cyclists a minimum of three feet when overtaking them, the bicycle, which brought about America's first roads, will become their favored user and rightful king once again.


When our leaders lead, our educators our TV and radio personalities, even our publicists and public speakers, etc, all will feel called  to talk the kind of different talk that encourages the bicycle trip and not the car trip. And as they too  help to usher in the nirvana we foresee,  we, as a society, will evolve to both accept and support the changed lifestyle (clothing, fashion, dining and other activities, etc) that bicycle based traveling will bring about.

The ethers will be saturated with the call to reorient our priorities so that besides making our attitudes safe for pedal power, our schools, shopping areas, entertainment venues  and the workplace, etc, will all  favor the two wheel traveller. Instead of building parking lots and parking garages to attract automobiles,  these destinations will understand the logic of enticing the bicycle trip with everything from  bike racks to bike lockers, shower facilities, even discounted merchandise and services, and the like.

To help steer the direction of the two wheeled renaissance that is sure to result when our leaders get in step with the collective will, the NBG needs to be in front of the curve as this shift in consciousness begins to occur. We will be busy impregnating the National Mind with a  new kind of   'if you build it, they will come'. We want to empower the whole new breed of thinkers who will have removed the car from their own personal  transportation equations.

With a utopian  vision of our own, while the   network  we foresee free of motor vehicles becomes a reality in time, in the immediate, we will be busy calling for the retrofitting of roads so that they fit the needs of the cyclist. And we will be successful  wherever it is that we have helped to  make it possible for bikes and cars to safely co-exist with one another.

The massive growth of bicycling we are beginning to see in New York City, Washington, DC, Philadelphia, San Francisco San Diego and Portland will continue to spread on the coasts. As  the changed lifestyle this brings about  sinks deeper and deeper into our collective character, it will spread even faster in big cities like Pittsburgh, Columbus, Chicago and Denver. Soon, its effects will also be visible  in more remote America.

Besides helping cyclists move about in the more populated city centers, as well as to and from them,  the NBG network  will also bring tourism back to a small town USA that the Interstates have abandoned in their quest for speed. One example is the Mother Highway, Route 66. The dying parts of it that have not given way to freeway, can be made a part of the NBG network and can create a whole new way of seeing this great land of ours. Already, cyclists are enjoying a small part of 66. Its  mile-long Chain of Rocks Bridge, that crosses the mighty Mississippi River  in Missouri, was recently opened on weekends to human power only.

As our  network becomes more accessible to more of America  and it becomes a transportation link in urban areas as well as a recreation paradise both outside and inside of population centers, as we saw with the intestates, its outer reaches will become less  and less inaccessible to human power. This as  all of the roads that access our Greenway are  made grand once again. As are all of the tiny towns along the way.

In the case of Route 66, for example, it doesn't have to be dedicated exclusively to bikes to stimulate bicycle tourism. All that will be required is that cyclists be made favored and welcome users. How? An eight foot wide bike lane can easily be added to both sides of its entire length.

The importance of generous breathing room for cycle travel at the edge of a road  can be seen on US 11 that runs from New Orleans to just outside of Washington DC. It is a favorite with knowledgeable bicyclists in the areas it serves because of the wide shoulder that runs much of its length. There are other such abandoned US highways all over America that all can be readily upgraded to become a part of the National Bicycle Greenway we foresee.

The roads we will have selected for our system will all be interconnected  to meet up with the great trail work that is being done all over America. Examples include  the C&O Canal path, that will ultimately connect Pittsburgh and parts north with DC. In the greater DC area, the many great trails and paths such as the Branch Trail network and Rock Creek Park that runs through much of the heart of the Capitol City, will all be tied into our system.

In the Midwest, bike roads and paths will connect to the Katy Trail in Missouri and with the great trails in Minnesota and Wisconsin. Natchez Trace Parkway , a beautiful motor way in the South, will be easily retrofitted to accommodate bikes and Florida's growing network of trails will also be made a part of our NBG network. While out in the West, the California Aqueduct that sends water from Northern California to the South and is already an approved bike route but is largely inaccessible because no bike roads feed it, will be plugged into our system as will the Santa Ana River trail that connects Los Angeles with the desert. In the Pacific Northwest, the beautiful Centennial Trail that connects Eastern Washington with Idaho will be made more accessible to the biking capital of Portland, OR.

The tremendous work that is being done by the Rails to Trails ConservancyAmerican Discovery TrailAdventure CyclingWABA; the East Coast Greenway and other such advocacy and trail building organizations will supercharge the vision we hold into a powerful form.

Inter-city and intra-city routes will be added to this system as we establish the main  overlay routes that connect all the states to our one main SF to DC route. In time, the National Bicycle Greenway will connect to all the sightseeing areas, city parks, schools, food, shopping and recreation locations within all of America's  big and small  downtowns When all of these trails and paths are linked to our system, public pressure will be brought to bear so that  more and more arterials are upgraded to meet NBG  specifications.


As the National Bicycle Greenway builds more and more worthy bike paths and cyclist-friendly roads into our network, in time, the beauty of America will be on hand for all who use their own bodies to see. This as the NBG changes both the physical and mental landscape of  America.

In getting to such a Promised Land,  we will feel called to let go of the  old tired engines that used to drive our economy  We will tax ourselves differently. Instead of using such funds  to build freeways, those monies will be used to build greenway arterials that serve the purpose of bike transportation.

In my book,  HBGR, I talk in detail about all the new sources of income that  will come about in a greenway and not a freeway economy.  These include:

Job Creation in:
- the huge new demand for bikes and their accessories
- bike maintenance and all the new trade schools that legitimize the bike mechanic career path
- construction of new lodging accommodation that  meets the needs of the bike traveler
- Greenway building industries  (construction of bridge crossings,  pathways and lighting, signage, kiosk and message boards, restroom, drinking fountains and food and drink concessions at car staging areas and all along bike way, etc)
- kiosk and message board advertising sales
- food and drink concessions (including super food & kombucha bars, etc.)
- Greenway hub centers, warehouse sized, where under one roof, bike community can come for classes and workshops, bike repair and recycled bike and parts sales, lectures, a reading room and juice bar, video screenings, social activities and camaraderie, etc.
- Greenway gift and novelty  stores
- new  cottage industries for makers of bike apparel and bike trailers, etc.
- shower stop and restroom upkeep
- bike parking & security
- bike taxis
- bike rentals
- Greenway Sherpa services
- bike mapping hardware and software

While the jobs created above can't be exported, and there is also much sales tax to be gained, our Greenway will  also make for a healthier USA as it speaks to the overweight epidemic that is gripping America today. And as exercise requires healthier foods, we will also spend  much, much less of our time and national resources on health care as we become a great nation, not dependent on other countries for their oil, once again.


We often hear the refrain, "Things are moving so fast, we need to slow down." A commitment to build the NBG network is a move towards restoring sanity, peace, and the needed well-being that is our birthright. There is a place inside each of us that knows the National Bicycle Greenway can make for a true heaven of this earth.

Having, since 1993 (here is some of the NBG media I have created),  pushed for a  network of bike roads and paths as far as I can while relying on volunteers  with limited staff through the nonprofit I have formed, in 2005, I began working on a business plan. Grounded in all the feedback and other data we have collected over the last two decades, in making  the National Bicycle Greenway real, I  feel we now know. what resources will be needed to do so. The over view for  how we would like to proceed as well as the finer detail of the actual mechanics can be found in my new book, "How America Can Bike & Grow Rich".

As the bold vision that it is, my book presumes a lot  In doing so, it takes inspiration from  the words I used to transcend two months in a coma, right side paralysis and clinical death to then do two bike rides across America, write books about these experiences and the NBG and win awards as a fitness leader. They come from the widely accomplished  German writer, philosopher, diplomat, biologist, and physicist, Johann Wolgang von Goethe, who in the 19th century said:
Whatever you you can do
or dream you can,
begin it.
Boldness has genius, power
and magic in it.

Monday, August 26, 2013

Lessons Learned from America's First Coast-to-Coast Highway in Building the NBG


Preface

The Greatest Memorial
The Lincoln Highway

"It is a name to conjure by. It calls to the heroic. It enrolls a mighty panorama of fields and woodlands; of humble cabins and triumphant farm homes and cattle on a thousand hills; burrowing mines and smoking factories; winding brooks, commerce-laden rivers and horizon lost oceans.

And because it binds together all these wonders and sweeps forward till it touches the end of the earth and the beginning of the sea it is to be named the "Lincoln Highway".

It brings back to us the lank figure of the growing boy walking the country roadway with borrowed books; the dreaming out, surveying and building of his highway of the soul, that should stretch from that mysterious ocean of the past, whence he came, to the mysterious ocean of the eternal, to which he would go;

A highway along whose everyday travel he had a gentle word for the sorrowing, a hand for the one in trouble, a sharp prod for the indifferent, a word of council for the perplexed, an inspiration for the doubtful, and love for all; the highway of the soul of the "Great American".

Therefore, Be it Resolved, That The Lincoln Highway Now Is And Henceforth Shall Be An Existing Memorial In Tribute To, That Great Martyred Patriot - ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Rev. Frank G. Brainard First Congregational Church Ogden, Utah September 21, 1913


In getting from one coast to the other here in America, as you will see when we talk about Omaha's significance to the opening of the West, as forms of travel evolved, so did the one main route they journeyed upon. By canoe and horseback man first pioneered his way west via the Lewis and Clark expedition.  The stagecoaches of those seeking free land or California gold altered it with the Oregon Trail that soon followed. It wasn’t long before the transcontinental railroad closely paralleled the known way West to then rewrite all the rules for coast-to-coast travel. By the time automobiles made the connection to California with the Lincoln Highway, the way to move across this Nation’s lands was then carved in stone.

Of all these connections, none empowered the individual, shifted the collective consciousness or stimulated the nation's imagination more than the Lincoln Highway. No more than ruts in the grass or a "red line on a map connecting all the worst mudholes in the Country" as it was referred to by many when it began, it was formed by those who dared to think big. This as the courage of its early users was equally as large. And yet it would go on to impact how people lived on this continent in many ways similar to how the Tran Siberia Railroad across Russia as well as the Silk Road across Asia affected the lives of eastern Europeans. In the end, even though it was never one road but made use of many, it still changed our geography, enlarged the scope for what was possible and began to show that strangers are only friends one has yet to meet.

Long is this how I have foreseen the impact that the National Bicycle Greenway can have for America. And we are getting closer to the shift in mass consciousness that will have taken place before we as a Nation begin to demand the NBG. In the not too distant future, it will become plainly evident that this country must be outfitted with the labyrinth of safe bike roads and paths our organization has long envisioned. 

This is so for many reasons. Largely because of the way in which we have squandered oil, for example, the conditions of the world, war, traffic gridlock, climate change and noise and air pollution, etc, etc, will force us to look for solutions in a radically different frontier. And as we do, we will realize that the only place left for us to search will be in a territory also only explored initially by the adventurous few. 

A frightful place for most, the wilderness to which I refer is the inner self each of us knows so very little about. And we need to know who and what we are so we can begin to heal the planet we have helped to break with the automobile. As we continue to make our car’s health, and all that it embodies, more important than our own, we keep our focus on all the externals its unmeasured use promotes.  We keep trying to go faster to get to all those solutions that we think are out there to our feeling of being disconnected from ourselves, the planet and from one another as we race around trying to keep up.

As we work longer and harder so we can go faster and live in the bigger spaces our vehicles require for parking and purchases, ours is a treadmill of complexity. When we place the car at the center of our life we must add more things to it that we have to keep track of. This is so because, unlike a bicycle, it just does not make sense for us to take an overgrown extension of ourselves to the grocery store, for example, if we cannot buy in quantity. 

Paying a visit to the local food merchant with an auto for an apple or a single roll of toilet paper is often ruled out as unwise unless the need is desperate. Besides the wear, tear and fuel cost of driving somewhere to make a small purchase, all drivers also know that the agitation of parking almost always awaits. In fact, there are many places automobile users just do not visit because finding a close by landing spot for their space hungry vehicles is either hard or impossible.

What’s more is that because they try to consolidate their trips so that they can buy from as few sellers as possible, those chained to their cars lose out on the chance to be out in their community. The number of familiar faces, such as those of shopkeepers and their fellow customers, is less to the man in the automobile than it is to the person who relies on his own two legs to do his shopping. Because it is difficult to build rapport and thereby trust when people see less of one another, car drivers not only compromise their own humanity but they serve to keep more of us strangers to one another.

The motoring public also sees different roads than does the man on two wheels or two legs. In the interest of time and convenience, the vehicle user travels on often-lifeless boulevards, expressways and freeways to get places. This as those who make use of their own power often travel on quieter neighborhood roads where bird song can often be heard, nature and not exhaust fumes can often be smelled and the actual life forms of people and animals can often be seen.

Soon, more and more of us will also understand the importance of being known to more of our brothers and sisters. It will become very clear to us that by lessening our dependence on the private automobile we will not feel so isolated from one another. And as we unite as a way to get back to our true selves, ours will have become a move in the direction of simplicity. 

As the business of life becomes less complicated, the bicycle, where modern transportation all began, will become the tool we will have used to make this a reality. When glass and metal no longer separate us from our brothers, by riding a bike we will have discovered what it is to be a part of the human family. When a radio or the steady drone of an engine does not drown out the music of our feathered friends or the sounds of the city, we will have started to listen for our connection to all of that which surrounds us. When we can feel the wind, even the wet of rain on our face, it is the bicycle that will have taught us the joy of being fully awake and alive.

As the act of bicycling reawakens us to the fact that the best things in life, sunshine, fresh air and the colors and sounds of nature, are all free, it will also teach us that we already have it all. Soon we will learn that we need nothing from others to be complete. It will be this inner knowing that soon teaches us that conflict cannot bring us anything of value. 

Despite the fact that the government funded our interstate system for defense purposes, when the majority of the Nation’s trip are done on a bike, our long distance roads will no longer be seen as ways for us to escape an “enemy”. Instead, we will see them as ways for us to more fully explore the love that is our connection to one another and to the planet itself. 

Using the early Lincoln Highway as an example, then, I will show you how we can switch from the car consciousness it brought about to make it very American to put the bicycle in the center of one’s world. And as more of us do, we will saturate all the roads all over this Nation with human power. As we go about creating the heaven on earth we call the National Bicycle Greenway, it will help us to understand the Lincoln Highway.

On July 1, 1913, 17 cars and 2 trucks left Indianapolis in search of a route to California for the newly formed Lincoln Highway Association (LHA). The LHA wanted to see a road built that would connect the east coast with the west. While the route from the Atlantic Ocean to Indianapolis was known, getting to the Golden State by car was a mystery for most. 

After a journey filled with breakdowns and often-impassable roads, 34 days later the LHA caravan made it to San Francisco. Several weeks later a route was announced. It would cross the 13 states of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, and California. Spanning 3389 miles, it would travel from Times Square in New York City to Lincoln Park in San Francisco.  

In order to better understand what the LHA people were up against when they began their “road”, we need to see their challenge in its context.  Their “highway” across America was conceived at a time when only 10 years before Dr. Nelson Jackson had proven it was even possible to travel cross-country in a car. In 1903, he drove one from New York to San Francisco. It took him 65 days!

In the first 15 years of the 20th Century, most Americans just did not travel very far beyond their own towns. And if they did so, it was not in an automobile, as only the wealthy owned them. In fact, many people thought of roads that went long distances as “peacock alleys” that the rich just used to prance about on as they explored the countryside.

Before Henry Ford introduced the assembly line in 1913, the price of a car rivaled that of a home. For that matter, the cost of one tire, of which many were needed on longer trips, could be measured in the form of several weeks’ worth of the workingman’s wages. Nor did the majority of America even live in cities where they could get a regular paycheck.  In 1910, only 46.3% of the population did not pay himself with the produce of his land.  For this reason, the LHA had to convince America, that the Lincoln Highway they envisioned was desirable in a Nation that was still largely driven by the needs of the farm.

When the Lincoln began, the country had approximately 2,199,600 miles of rural roads. Also at the time, in the entire United States, there were only 190,476 miles worth of roads with improved surfaces. An improved surface was defined by the US Bureau of Public Roads (established with the U.S. Forest Service in 1905 to make America’s National Parks more accessible) as dirt that had been covered by gravel, stone, sand-clay, brick, shells or oil.  

Like the airplane and the car that preceded it, the forerunner of the US Interstate system, the Lincoln Highway, was also brought to us by a bicycle mechanic. Few people know that Carl Fisher, the man who fomented the Lincoln Highway, and earlier the Indianapolis Speedway, and later the Dixie Highway and also Miami Beach, used to run a bicycle repair shop,

In 1891 the seventeen-year-old Fisher and his two brothers opened a bicycle shop in Indianapolis where, among other things, they repaired flat tires for twenty-five cents. He also belonged to an Indianapolis bike club where he went on rides to far away Indiana cities. He often did so with some of the people who would join him in his later business endeavors.

Although handicapped by poor eyesight, Fisher managed to participate in a number of bicycle races, He even slugged it out with champion bike racer, Barney Oldfield, who would go on to become a famed race car driver and the first man to go 60 miles an hour.

Later, Fisher turned to promotional stunts to help him sell his product. Wearing a padded suit, for example, he once rode a bicycle across a tightrope stretched over a downtown Indianapolis street. Always looking for ways to market his wares, he even built and rode a twenty-foot-high bicycle.

Just as he was swept up in the bicycle craze of the Gay ‘90’s, when cars started becoming popular, he felt pulled in that direction. In fact, he once told Oldfield back when they were racing bikes together,  "I don't see why the automobile can't be made to do everything the bicycle has done." Not long after, Fisher converted his bicycle shop into an automobile repair/sales facility.

By the time the 20th Century began, Fisher was fully consumed with the miracle of internal combustion. So much so that by 1909, he would go on to form the Indianapolis Motor Speedway with some of the friends he had made through bicycling. Wanting to increase the need for the new product they sold, automobiles, with Fisher at the lead, he and his new auto pals concocted the bold vision of a car road from New York to California. 

However when some of the early car makers, such as Henry Ford, did not buy into their dream, Fisher’s group soon realized they would not be able to raise the millions needed back then to actually build a coast to coast car connection. Instead, they would make use of the roads and paths they knew to exist until they could collect the resources that would be required to actually lay the concrete they foresaw. In order to do so, they turned to promotion. 

If you think of all the dirt roads and paths that had to be paved back when the LHA began in order for them to be worthy for cars, the NBG is employing the same strategy. In our case, the road as we know it today, can be thought of as an early American dirt surface that just needs to be upgraded to fit the needs of cyclists. We can also think of the occasional concrete surface the early motorist was able to luxuriate on as being comparable to the bike boulevards found in more and more cities, and in some cases similar to a few of the rail trails and bike lanes that stand out today.

While there are many parallels between our organization and theirs, as we will soon be showing you, it is important right now to see more of how the LHA mind worked. In order to get early 20th Century man to accept the notion of loud, foul smelling vehicles rumbling over the land he lived off of, the LHA had to get very creative. Toward this end, late in 1914, when their "highway" was formally announced, after almost two years of teasing the public with the adventure calling to them from California, they devised a way to make it seem un-American to not support what they had envisioned. 

They called their offer to drive the collection of roads they had assembled an “Appeal to Patriots”. Having already credentialized it with the name ‘Lincoln’, Fisher and friends had devised a way to make a person look like a better citizen if he or she motored on the course they selected. Working every angle in order to sell their vision, the LHA even referred to the roads they had chosen, most of them dirt, as  "The Main Street Across America."

Driven by the ever-burgeoning automobile industry, the LHA knew that in order to create demand for its machines they had to have not just a road to California but lots of roads going everywhere. And as history has shown us, from the systematic deconstruction of passenger rail to the demolition of whole neighborhoods and historic buildings, future road builders would go on to stop at nothing to make people feel like they needed paved thoroughfares to get places.

Unaware of the problems that could result from rampant road building, the LHA did whatever they could to insure that their one road, which would spawn many, got built. In getting our one coast-to-coast Greenway built, a thruway that can only add to the planet, not take from it; it is their success we are copying. Here are some of the other parallels between our mission and theirs.

After their much-publicized tour across the US, which we talk more about later in this chapter, the LHA then collected all the data they had accumulated. Within the next year, they then announced a route. With this as a precedent, after our own much-celebrated tour, we, as well, plan to announce the information we have collected. The roads and paths we will have selected will be the best-known way for cyclists to connect San Francisco with Washington, DC and Boston. And just as the LHA had spent a few years shopping their vision around before they got their wheels on the ground for their cross-country caravan, that has also been our strategy. That has been one of the main reasons why we have produced nine years worth of Mayors' Rides.

With regard to marking the route they had chosen, wherever it was needed, the LHA tried to place directional signs on the dirt paths that were being used. Ultimately this evolved into what at one time were universally familiar red, white and blue concrete posts.  Here at the NBG, we have long foreseen handsome, green and black road signs inscribed with the words, ‘NBG Route’.

Just as the LHA had developed a set of specifications for its roads, we have had such a spec for our network of roads and paths on the books almost from our inception.   

Where what the LHA referred to as “seedling miles” is concerned, the work has already been done for the NBG. According to the LHA's 1924 guide, its seedling miles were intended "to demonstrate the desirability of this permanent type of road construction and crystallize public sentiment for further construction of the same character”. The many exemplary rail trails, bike boulevards and bike lane arterials that have cropped up all over America communicate what can be once America realizes the genuine need we have for the National Bicycle Greenway.

The Lincoln Highway people ran a radio show from 1940 to 1942. Brought to a halt by the second World War, it had worked to even further impregnate the American consciousness with what it saw as the need for more roads. We are endeavoring to change the way our fellow countrymen think with radio as well. Our podcast show, the NBG Mountain Mover series, has been busy daring people to visualize a two-wheel bicycle heaven since 2005.

Besides some of the indifference that the LHA faced for its road scheme, their car tour across America faced a whole different set of obstacles. Fisher left on the 1,700 mile Hoosier Tour (also called the Indiana–Pacific Indiana Automobile Manufacturers Association tour) at a time when filling stations were rare in America and none would be found anywhere between Indianapolis and San Francisco. Nor did the road map that we take for granted today even exist. Gulf Oil would not issue America’s first ever road map, a map that would only cover the area in and around Pittsburgh, PA, until the end of 1913 well after Fisher had completed his journey. 

The early car adventurers were in many ways similar to the long distance cyclists of today. Consider the equipment that was required of all vehicles on the 1913 Hoosier Tour:

- A pick or mattock
- A pair of tackle blocks
- Six hundred feet of three-quarter-inch rope
- A barn lantern to be hung on the rear tire carrier in case the car’s regular lights failed
- A steel stake three feet long to use as an anchor to pull the car out of sand or mud
- Twelve mudhooks
- A full set of chains
- A sledge
- Chocolate bars in cans
- Beans and other canned food
- A 4’x6’ tent
West of Salt Lake City:
Four African water bags filled at all times


When you think about the difficulty level facing those long distance car travelers of the early 1900’s, one can’t help but know that such journeys built character in the same way that a coast-to-coast bicycle ride does today. Without tow trucks, phone lines or any of the safety valves the modern motorist has at his or her disposal today, car voyagers back then, like the long distance bike trekkers of today, often had to go inside for answers. There are many other ways that the original automobile adventurer was like the present day cycle tourist.

While those who ventured to go long distance in a car had to rely on instinct and the goodwill of others, those who go long distance on a bike today can measure the quality of their ride by how well they are able to listen to that silent voice inside. Since the cycle tourist cannot carry as much as a car in the way of supplies, they often find themselves trusting that their intuition will locate the food and water needed to keep their legs moving. Whether it is a road they feel called to pedal, a stranger they feel compelled to talk to, or a trip guide they feel guided to consult, most know their needs will always be met. Those that do are the ones who just surrender to that Bigger Voice which is always trying to get our attention.

In many ways, the treks early car excursionists took were a waking meditation. Without radio, billboards or road signs to distract them, they also had to go inside for information and entertainment as they also bonded with their machines. Just as the transcontinental cyclist can get to know himself pretty well on the open road and is attuned to any new sound his bicycle may happen to make, early motorcar adventurers faced the same set of challenges. At a time when a car trip to the Pacific Ocean lasted one to two months, those hearty souls who undertook such a trip were forced to become not only their own best friend but they also knew that as uninvited guests to an unfamiliar land they always had to be on the lookout for those who could help.

Entering a frontier where no services for either their vehicles or themselves existed, they could not afford to alienate anyone in the event there was any kind of breakdown. From directions to health matters and broken parts, the smarter car pioneers knew they needed each other out there. Unlike car drivers of today, this awareness forced them to be friendly with other motorists. Since travel was bidirectional, they never passed up a chance to exchange information about the condition of the road itself as they moved into new turf.

In addition to one another, just like the NBG assists its scouts today, from 1913 to 1928, Lincoln HIghway travelers were assisted by the home offices of the Lincoln Highway Association. The LHA helped its travelers get on the way with routing and gearing recommendations. Though the actual “road” assistance the LHA provided could hardly be described as timely, especially by today’s standards, once word did get to them that someone was stuck, they still were able to get help out to stranded motorists.

Because of the bold vision Fisher put forth in every way possible with the highway he envisioned, a shift began to take place in the way Americans thought about travel. In fact, by the time Fisher’s much-publicized journey across the West was complete, car production had exceeded the manufacture of carriages and wagons in the United States for the first time in history. 

He had captured the interest of whole cities. As the LHA took the data Fisher’s caravan had collected and continued their work of configuring an official route, for example, a great number of population centers all across the country set up committees to try to lure the Lincoln Highway to come their way. And even after the roads that would be used were announced, some of those that had been bypassed continued lobbying efforts that would ultimately become futile. And yet as they continued to petition for the Lincoln, they added to the voice that clamored for roads.

Some of those that had been ignored, Denver, CO, for example, even went on to establish connections to other highway systems that had begun to rush in to fill the void. One such route was called the Midland Trail. Transcontinental, it ran from Washington DC to Los Angles. Other shorter connections such as the Dixie, Des Moines, Fort Dodge, Spirit Lake and Sioux Fall Highways began to form at this time as well.

Much of this was put on hold as America fought in World War I. However, when the war ended in 1919, the LHA rallied a sense of patriotism for their road once again. It sold the US Army on the fact that they needed to use its "highway" to test the reliability of their vehicles. As such, a convoy of 72 vehicles, most of them heavy military trucks, and 297 men, paraded across America for two months that summer. Everywhere their machines went, sometimes with great difficulty, their drivers were worshipped as heroes. 

One of the officers who traveled on this tour was Dwight D Eisenhower, the same man who 38 years later would usher the Interstate Highway system into law under the pretext of defense preparedness. And as he did so, the policy he set forth would officially swallow up the numbered US Highways that had replaced the Lincoln with what is known today as I-80. 

The road building frenzy that had been blessed by the Army Transcontinental Motor Convoy gave cars more and more places to go. Soon, creating more automobiles and place for them to drive became America’s preoccupation.

And yet maybe if Fisher’s original dream of connecting communities to one another hadn’t been obviated by Henry Joy’s engrossment with the most direct route, later road builders would have had more respect for people, the buildings that housed them and the land itself. As the president of both the Packard Motor Car Company and the Lincoln Hwy Association, Joy was far more interested in the shortest path to San Francisco than he was in visiting any of the sights or residents along the way. 

It was Joy’s mindset that won over Fisher’s as technology then enabled construction engineers to more and more conquer the country as they mowed through whatever was in the way. This psychology continued unabated into the 50’s and 60’s. It was not until Jane Jacobs led a movement to stop Robert Moses, who had already displaced nearly three quarters of a million people in New York City with his insatiable thirst for roads, that road building in the interest of progress was finally called into question.

And yet there again, the early transportation pioneers of the last century could not have foreseen the downward spiral that the automobile would ultimately take us down. The health and social costs and the cost to the planet are only now forcing us to rethink the once unchallenged sacredness of the car and all the space it needs to do its work. From roads to parking places and the orientation of buildings, etc, we are only just now beginning to call any of the automobile’s insatiable appetite into question.

Just as the father of the Lincoln Highway, Carl Fisher, began life as a bicycle mechanic and racer, indeed we have come back to the very point where modern transportation all began. As we reverse engineer our cities so that people can move about, free also of noise and smell, it will be the bicycle that will make our population centers more livable once again. Besides getting us out of gridlock and helping to solve the long list of environmental woes caused by the automobile, the bicycle will also speak to the overweight epidemic that is gripping America today.

If there ever was a war that could justify the expenditure of federal dollars here in the US, it needs to be fought right now. For those who cannot see how we can make it cost effective to fight for the planet, we can at least engage in battle against the direct cause of skyrocketing health costs - obesity. Investment in safe infrastructure for walkers, joggers and cyclists can drive this expense down as it makes all of America healthy and virile once again. So from a profit and loss standpoint alone, the numbers for just trying to slim this country’s waist line could easily justify a new "Appeal to Patriots", the building of the National Bicycle Greenway.

So just as the Lincoln Highway came at Americans with many different messages about its benefit, our tour to Washington, DC and Boston will also provoke much thought. And it is our hope that the arguments we will have presented for a nation centered on two wheels will become actionable before it is too late!